What is the primary reason that organizations change their structure through downsizing, outsourcing, and offshoring as a means of improving their operating efficiency?

Midterm – Organizational/Industrial Psychology
2.The movie “Cheaper by the Dozen,” made in 1950 and re-made in 2003, was based on the life of?
5. In the conduct of scientific research, a “theory” might best be regarded as:
A)the outcome of the research investigation
B)the only reason to conduct the research
C) a means to an end
D)something to be proven right or wrong
7.A researcher wants to study the degree to which high school grades forecast college grades. In this study high school grades are the _____ variable and college grades are the _____ variable.
A) independent, dependent
B) predictor, criterion
C) dependent, independent
D) criterion, predictor
10. Meta-analysis was developed in what decade?
D) 1950s
12.Which of the following is not proposed as a reason why many people are unaware of “industrial/organizational psychology?”
A) psychology is organized around processes, not major life events
B) its low level of coverage in introductory psychology textbooks
C) there is confusion as to how I/O psychology differs from other disciplines
D) there is little need for psychology applied to work
13. Compared to novices, the mental models of experts are _____.
A)slower, but more accurate
B)more complex
C)more streamlined
D)associated with mental models used to solve other problems
16.It took ____ years for the world population to grow from 2 billion to 3 billion, and it took ____ years for the world population to grow from 6 to 7 billion.
A) 35, 11
B) 22, 12
C) 40, 10
D) 14, 14
18.Which of the following is not recommended for the content of performance appraisals?
A)appraisals based on job related factors
B)appraisals based on global assessments
C)appraisals based on performance under the control of the employee
D)appraisals based on behaviors
22.Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is used to assess what construct?
A)vocational interest
C)physical ability
D)mental ability
23. Lowering the criterion cutoff will have what effect?
A)increases number of successful employees
B)decreases number of successful employees
C)increases number of people passing the test
D)decreases number of people passing the test
25. The result of the “file drawer effect” is to arrive at conclusions that are characterized by:
A)negative bias
B)positive bias
C)individual bias
D)group bias
26. Research subjects are allowed at any time to withdraw from participation from any research study, as expressed by which right from the APA Code of Ethics?
A)informed consent
B)protection from deception
30. Which of the following is not a dimension of the theory of person perception?
31. What is the only linkage we can ever empirically assess in construct validation?
A)measure of construct 1 and measure of construct 2
B)measure of construct 1 and construct 2
C)construct 1 and construct 2
D)measure of construct 1 and construct 1
33. Which of the following has not been identified as a critical management skill?
A)proficiency in computer technology
B)managing stress
C)solving problems
D)developing self awareness
34. The logic of error management training is:
A)we learn from experience
B)assign the responsibility for errors to other people
C)make many serious errors and learns from them
D)people who advance in organizations make the fewest mistakes
36.In what decade did the world population reach 2 billion people?
37.What is the primary reason that organizations change their structure through downsizing, outsourcing, and offshoring as a means of improving their operating efficiency?
A)reduction in labor costs
B)increased speed of operations
C)improved quality of work
D)dissatisfaction with worker performance
38.The fact that organizations routinely assess multiple criteria of employee performance attests to which of the following:
A)there is a unidimensional basis to employee job performance
B)the criteria were identified inductively
C)different criteria of job performance are relatively independent of each other
D)the criteria were derived deductively
45.A task-oriented analysis would be least suitable for which of the following jobs?
A)production worker
D)tool-and-die maker
46.The Hawthorne studies began in the same year as what major world event?
A) end of WWII
B) beginning of WWI
C) creation of Social Security Act
D) Lindbergh makes first transatlantic flight
48.The first documented personnel selection test in history involved the assessment of which of the following?
A)the ability to start a fire
B)the ability to lift a heavy object
C)the ability to use a sword
D)the ability to pronounce a word

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